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Tuesday, March 5, 2013

FILTRATION: FILTRATION THEORY


A.      FILTRATION THEORY
While research has developed a significant and detailed filtration theory, it is still so difficult to define a given liquid-solid system that it is both  faster and more  accurate  to determine  filter requirements by performing  small-scale tests. Filtration  theory does,  however, show how the test data can best be correlated, and extrapolated when necessary, for use in scale-up calculations.

In cake or surface filtration, there are two primary areas of consideration: continuous filtration, in which the resistance of the filter cake (deposited process solids) is very large with respect to that of the filter media and filtrate drainage, and batch pressure filtration, in which the resistance of the filter cake is not very large with respect to that of the filter media and filtrate drainage. Batch pressure filters are generally fitted with heavy, tight filter cloths plus a layer of precoat and these represent  a significant resistance  that  must  be  taken  into account. Continuous filters, except for precoats, use relatively open cloths that offer little resistance compared to that of the filter cake.

Simplified theory for both batch and continuous filtration is based on the time-honored Hagen-Poiseuille equation:


where V is the volume of filtrate collected, Θ is the filtration time, A is the filter area, P is the total pressure across the system, w is the weight of cake solids/unit volume of filtrate, µ is the filtrate viscosity, α is the cake-specific resistance, and r is the resistance of the filter cloth plus the drainage system.

Genk, Wayne J., dkk. 2008. Perry’s chemical engineers handbook,  Section 18: Liquid-solid Operations and equipment. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

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